Saturday, May 23, 2020
Monday, May 18, 2020
In conversation analysis, turn-taking is a term for the manner in which orderly conversation normally takes place. A basic understanding can come right from the term itself: Its the notion that people in a conversation take turns in speaking. When studied by sociologists, however, the analysis goes deeper, into topics such as how people know when its their turn to speak, how much overlap there is between speakers, when its OK to have overlap, and how to consider regional or gender differences. The underlying principles of turn-taking were first described by sociologists Harvey Sacks, Emanuel A. Schegloff, and Gail Jefferson in A Simplest Systematics for the Organization of Turn-Taking for Conversation in the journalÃ Language, in the December 1974 issue. Competitive vs. Cooperative Overlap Much of the research in turn-taking has looked into competitive versus cooperative overlap in conversations, such as how that affects the balance of power of those in the conversation and how much rapport the speakers have. For example, in competitive overlap, researchers might look at how one person dominates a conversation or how a listener might take some power back with different ways of interrupting.Ã Ã In cooperative overlap, a listener might ask for clarification on a point or add to the conversation with further examples that support the speakers point. These kinds of overlaps help move the conversation forward and aid in communicating the full meaning to all who are listening. Or overlaps might be more benign and just show that the listener understands, such as by saying Uh-huh. Overlap like this also moves the speaker forward. Cultural differences and formal or informal settings can change whats acceptable in a particular group dynamic.Ã Ã Examples and Observations Television programs, books, and films present some fine examples of turn-taking. Christine Cagney: Im being quiet now. That means its your turn to talk.Mary Beth Lacey:Ã Im trying to think of what to say.(Cagney Lacey, 1982) Once a topic is chosen and a conversation initiated, then matters of conversational turn-taking arise. Knowing when it is acceptable or obligatory to take a turn in conversation is essential to the cooperative development of discourse. This knowledge involves such factors as knowing how to recognize appropriate turn-exchange points and knowing how long the pauses between turns should be. It is also important to know how (and if) one may talk while someone else is talkingÃ¢â¬âthat is if the conversational overlap is allowed. Since not all conversations follow all the rules for turn-taking, it is also necessary to know how to repair a conversation that has been thrown off course by undesired overlap or a misunderstood comment. Cultural differences in matters of turn-taking can lead to conversational breakdown, misinterpretation of intentions, and interpersonal intergroup conflict. (Walt Wolfram and Natalie Schilling-Estes, American English: Dialects and Variation. Wiley-Blackwell, 2006) The Wolf: Youre Jimmie, right? This is your house?Jimmie: Sure is.The Wolf: Im Winston Wolfe. I solve problems.Jimmie: Good, we got one.The Wolf: So I heard. May I come in?Jimmie: Uh, yeah, please do.(Pulp Fiction, 1994) Turn-Taking and Parliamentary Procedure The rules regarding turn-taking in formal situations can differ markedly than between people who are speaking casually together. Absolutely fundamental to following parliamentary procedure is knowing when and how to speak in your correct turn. Business in deliberative societies cannot be conducted when the members are interrupting each other and when they are speaking out of turn on unrelated subjects. Etiquette calls interrupting someone else rude behavior and unfitting for people in refined society. [Emily] Posts book of etiquette goes beyond this to describe the importance of listening and responding to the correct topic as being part of good manners when participating in any form of conversation. By waiting your turn to speak and avoiding interrupting another person, you not only show your desire to work together with the other members of your society, you also show respect for your fellow members. (Rita Cook, The Complete Guide to Roberts Rules of Order Made Easy. Atlantic Publishing, 2008) Interrupting vs. Interjecting Sometimes butting in while someone is talking may not be considered as interrupting, but only interjecting. To be sure, a debate is as much about performance and rhetoric (and snappy one-liners) as it is about meaningful dialogue. But our ideas about conversation inevitably shape how we perceive the debates. This means, for example, that what seems an interruption to one viewer might be merely an interjection to another. Conversation is an exchange of turns, and having a turn means having a right to hold the floor until you have finished what you want to say. So interrupting is not a violation if it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t steal the floor. If your uncle is telling a long story at dinner, you may cut in to ask him to pass the salt. Most (but not all) people would say you arenÃ¢â¬â¢t really interrupting; you just asked for a temporary pause. (Deborah Tannen, Would You Please Let Me Finish ... The New York Times, Oct. 17, 2012)
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Parks and Recreation, Leslie Knope, and Feminism As a predecessor of NBCÃ¢â¬â¢s The Office, Parks and Recreation (or PR for short,) had big shoes to fill. Both shows were created by Greg Daniels and Mike Schur, and at first, PR did not impress many, as its ratings were low. The first season seemed not to have a place, like a show trying to be something it was not, until it found its footing. Feminism was the missing piece of the puzzle. The show went on to become a success- arguably more so than The Office. So what separates the two? PR eventually gave us something The Office never did: real world issues, served up with clever wit. The fictional worlds most television shows take place in, are almost entirely post-feminist. Unlike these sexism-free utopias, PR normalizes feminism, reminding us that it exists and is important; it is the stepping stone we need to further conversations about inequality. While the text of PR is consistently the most obviously empowering aspect of the sh ow, production practices and audience consumption are also rich with evidence of this seriesÃ¢â¬â¢ feminist potential. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s important to clarify that when I say feminism, I am talking about Ã¢â¬Å"liberal feminism,Ã¢â¬ or, Ã¢â¬Å"white feminism.Ã¢â¬ The kind of feminism you see in PR is Ã¢â¬Å"women having a seat at the table,Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"breaking the glass ceilingÃ¢â¬ feminism. The show lacks intersectional views and never touches upon racial, class or LGBT issues. Whether or not the use of liberal feminism is problematic or not,Show MoreRelatedLeslie Knope s Privilege And White Feminism Essay1929 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesLeslie KnopeÃ¢â¬â¢s Privilege and White Feminism in Parks And Recreation Parks And Recreation is a work place comedy utilizing dry humor to comment on the current American government system. The main character, Leslie Knope, is a white middle-aged cis-gender female who loves capitalist government, breakfast foods, and strongly believes that if you put in the hard work you can overcome anything. The show succeeds in demonstrating a women in a position of power, climbing through the ranks, and assuminglyRead MoreAnalysis Of Abc s Fice Essay1981 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesAs a predecessor of NBCÃ¢â¬â¢s The Office, both created by Greg Daniels and Mike Schur, Parks and Recreation (or PR for short) had big shoes to fill. At first, the show did not impress many, and its ratings were low. The first season seemed not to have a place, like a show trying to be something it was not, until it found its footing. Feminism was the missing piece of the puzzle. The show went on to become a success- even more so than The Office. So what separates the two? PR eventually gave us somethingRead MoreBen Wyatt s Wife And Parks And Recreation Essay1729 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Ã¢â¬Å"Ben WyattÃ¢â¬â¢s wifeÃ¢â¬ and Parks and Recreation In the television series Parks and Recreation, feminism is an underlying theme, itÃ¢â¬â¢s a one liner, or itÃ¢â¬â¢s in the background. But, in season seven, episode nine- Ã¢â¬Å"Pie-Mary,Ã¢â¬ feminism, sexism and gender inequality are all front and center. This episode centers around Leslie and Ben (who is running to be a congressman) and their decision to skip the Ã¢â¬Å"Pie-Mary,Ã¢â¬ a pie baking contest between candidates wives, because their agenda is already so full. The backlashRead MoreModern Feminism Of The Abc, Television Show Park And Recreation Essay1980 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages Modern Feminism In the NBC, television show Park and Recreation, Ã¢â¬Å"Pie-MaryÃ¢â¬ , Ben Knope declares, Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m sorry, this whole thing makes me queasy. I love how independent my wife is and because of that I will not let her speak. That came out wrong. The point is, Leslie is a great mother, public servant-all around person. And I am tired of everyone constantly telling her that she is making the wrong choice.Ã¢â¬ Over a century ago, women embraced their rights and independence as equals to men. Since
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
A simple breakdown in order are the problems that Paul ran into as far as what was a struggle for him that he had to overcome in order to make HannahÃ¢â¬â¢s shop successful when he thought it would be impossible because of one emergency crises. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Emergency crisis. (Pg.21) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Fewer goods on the sales floor than before. (Pg. 33) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Figuring out a new location for the extra stock of merchandise. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Brainstorming ways to get selling items fast to the store on time for sale by creating lists from each department head. (Pg. 46) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Getting other store managers on board with a new and improved better system of logistics for a continuous pull of replenishment to receive items on time. (Pg. 166) Paul, the store manager at the Boca textile store at HannahÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦(Pg. 59) That was a start to PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s new revelation. RogersÃ¢â¬â¢s biggest stump in this story was how he was going to figure out how to move so many skus considering PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s idea of creating 10 enclosures for the stores in the district werenÃ¢â¬â¢t possible at the moment. (Pg. 138) RogerÃ¢â¬â¢s problem would be solved by visiting a book warehouse (Pg.140) to almost mimic how they pick skus for resale. Behind these problems and the solutions they came up with is what helped them both reach the idea of how the continuous replenishment of the HannahÃ¢â¬â¢s shop would be moving forward in the future. Identify the traditional tools or tactics youÃ¢â¬â¢ve been taught in prior business classes (like QMB, Marketing, Operations Management, Finance, etc.) that the manager(s) in the story appear to have attempted. Marketing: Tools that I learned in my marketing class that was introduced in the book was using tactics such as having quality items to the point where you donÃ¢â¬â¢t need to use coupons to discount your items. When Paul was struggling to find ways to make the most sales after getting rid of nearly all of his stock, he did not use any coupons at all. In fact, he sold more items of what he had on the floor that was kept and considered more popular items and therefore had no need to use flyers or coupons to entice his customers to buy. People tend to spend more money as well when their shopping experience is more pleasant and theyÃ¢â¬â¢re able to find what they need without the clutter. (Pg.Show MoreRelatedMarriage And Civil Partnership By Sir James Munby1984 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesIntroduction Sir James MunbyÃ¢â¬â¢s speech highlighted the inadequacy of the cohabitation law and the need for a reform on financial relief for cohabitation when the relationship breakdowns. This paper will look at the current family lawÃ¢â¬â¢s approach to financial provision between cohabiting couples on separation and explain why a reform on cohabitation law is indeed Ã¢â¬Ëdesperately neededÃ¢â¬â¢. This paper will first explain what is cohabitation, and address the traditional mistaken belief of Ã¢â¬Å"common law marriageÃ¢â¬ Read MoreJean Piaget s Influence On Children961 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageschildhood lacked normalcy due, in large part, to his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s psychological issues. The abnormality of his home sparked an interest in Piaget to learn and discover outside of regular school curriculum. During his elementary school years, Piaget implored Paul Godet, the director at the Neuchatel museum of Naturel History, to allow him the pleasure of studying Ã¢â¬Å"the museumÃ¢â¬â¢s m ollusk collection after hoursÃ¢â¬ (Brainerd, 1996, 191). Godet became PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s tutor, teaching him the methods of classification. PiagetRead MoreEssay on Slaughterhouse Five1256 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescattle car as the prisoners are being transported from the lines to prison camps. Paul Lazzaro is a soldier in the war and the man responsible for Billys death. Edgar Derby is a former schoolteacher who is also taken prisoner and sent to Dresden. Derby is sentenced to die by a firing squad for taking a teapot. Eliot Rosewater occupies the bed near Billy in the nonviolent ward of an asylum after Billy has a post-war breakdown. Kilgore Trout is the bitter, unappreciated author of clever science fictionRead MoreSelection Methodology For Enhanced Oil Recovery Methods1254 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEfficiencies of Different EOR Methods (Alvarado,2010). 4. EOR Classification constraints In order to select the proper EOR method is knowing each EOR method technology constraint such as: 1. Mobility control Gas channeling related to mobiles rather than heterogeneity; breakdown of polymer bank due to bacterial degradation. 2. Operation Problem with oil treating, corrosion, scale, artificial lift, compression, formation plugging unrelated to injecting quality. 3. ReservoirRead MoreSustainability Is The Continuance Of A Defined Behavior1625 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSustainability is the continuance of a defined behavior or action with the ability to maintain a balance of what and how that specific behavior is being completed (Business Dictionary, 17). As this definition is general, we can apply it using a qualitative breakdown of its importance to biology and ecology. The importance of sustainability in biology and ecology is to ensure that the relationship in which we utilize our natural resources does not surpass the EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s abilities to produce those materials due toRead MoreMarketing Proposal : A New Website Platform For The Secondhand Book Selling1886 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesY Combinator Mountain View, LA March 21, 2016 Paul Graham Business manager Y Combinator Mountain View, LA Dear Mr. Graham: I have well heard about the great achievement of Y Combinator in the venture capital investment. The attached business proposal is about to establish a new website platform for the secondhand textbook exchange. It aims to deal with the long lasting problem of over inflation of textbook price in US. Yet currently it is also seeking the capital supporting to launch. In thisRead MoreSocial Media Has Altered The Basic Rules Of Communication Essay1591 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesmedia. Not everything that is posted on there is always true though. A disadvantage of social media is that anyone can upload something, which doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to be right, and many people will see it, believe it, and share it. This has been a constant problem because rumors go too far and sometimes even have serious consequences. Social media has created an extreme change in how we communicate. Nowadays, instead of picking up the phone, talking to someone in person or sending mail, humans tend to sendRead MoreEssay on Theories Related to Teen Pregnancy2530 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesThe concept of comprehensive social intervention has been defined as the process of identifying social problems in an attempt to eradicate them. In looking at the broad range of social characteristics and the behavior associated with teen pregnancy, it is obvious that the emphases placed on the effort to recognize and alleviate teen pregnancy can be celebrated through the effectiveness of education, family planning, and abstinence. However, the attempt to analyze and deal with the cause-and-effectRead MoreThe Women s Suffrage Movement Essay2565 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesanalyse the problems with voting that women face today, and attempt to discover ways in which the current situation can be improved. Even though women have had suffrage f or the past 96 years, they still face troubles when it comes to election day. Voter ID laws are emerging in many states, which can create struggles for women at the polls. This has disenfranchised many female voters, and has an even larger impact of women who come from minority groups. By raising awareness for these problems, we canRead MoreEthical Legal Dilemma Advanced Practice Nursing Case Study II3315 Words Ã |Ã 14 Pagesperineum and it appears that further skin breakdown is imminent.Ã The patient has become increasingly weak, and has fallen several times over the last few days.Ã He requires total care with all ADLÃ¢â¬â¢s and IADLÃ¢â¬â¢s and the family verbalizes being overwhelmed with what their father requires.Ã The patient is receiving hospice for medication administration for agitation and pain as well.Ã Both son and daughter are at risk of losing their jobs related to missing work in order to take care of their father.Ã The
Adolescent Psychology is a difficult specialty within the field. Many of the normal phases of adolescent development look like pathologies, and perhaps would be classified as such if the patients were adults. Thus, it is difficult, even for a trained professional, to tell the difference between a true pathology, and a Ã¢â¬Å"normalÃ¢â¬ mood or personality pattern associated with adolescent development. We will write a custom essay sample on Suicide and Adolescent Psychology or any similar topic only for you Order Now An area where this deficiency can lead to grave circumstances is the realm of adolescent depression and suicide. Although true suicidal tendencies can be difficult to spot in adolescent behavior, timely identification and proper treatment are important goals of Adolescent psychologists. Although causal theories differ, the treatment of teen suicide attempts and depression is fairly consistent across adolescent theorists. Typical symptomology of suicidal tendencies in adults has several features. (SymptomsÃ¢â¬ ¦2007) The underlying psychological cause of such ideations is usually depression. (SymptomsÃ¢â¬ ¦2007) Symptoms of depression include sleeping pattern disruptions, feelings of low self-worth, loss of interest in pleasurable activities and lack of energy. (SymptomsÃ¢â¬ ¦2007) One of the key indicators that a depressed adult is contemplating suicide is self-report. (SymptomsÃ¢â¬ ¦2007) Often, adults are not treated for suicidal depression until after they had made an attempt on their own life. (SymptomsÃ¢â¬ ¦2007) Ã Treatment for long-term depression in adults typically consists of medication and extensive therapy. (SymptomsÃ¢â¬ ¦2007) They type and length of therapy is contingent on many factors. (SymptomsÃ¢â¬ ¦2007) These include the specialty of the therapist, the diagnosed underlying condition, and the severity of the depressive state. Similarly, the medical regime for adults with suicidal depression varies as a function of the underlying psychological cause for the depression. (SymptomsÃ¢â¬ ¦2007) Typical depressive mood disorders are treated with anti-depressants, while personality or perception disorders, which can lead to a secondary depressive condition, are better treated with medication targeted to the underlying disorder. (SymptomsÃ¢â¬ ¦2007) As complicated as the diagnosis and treatment of suicidal depression is in adults, it is even more so in the adolescent population. (Teen SuicideÃ¢â¬ ¦2005) Ã Suicide is the third-most common cause of death among individuals between the ages of fifteen and twenty-four. (Teen SuicideÃ¢â¬ ¦2005) Ã There are large gender differences in accounting for teen suicide, but they are explained more by the methods used, than any particular predilection toward the act. (Teen SuicideÃ¢â¬ ¦2005)Ã 83% of adolescent suicides are males, whereas females make more attempts at suicide. (Teen SuicideÃ¢â¬ ¦2005)Ã The discrepancy can be explained by the fact that males are far more likely to use a gun in their attempts, while the method of choice for females is pills. (Teen SuicideÃ¢â¬ ¦2005)Ã Of the two, the chances for success are much higher among those who use a gun. (Teen SuicideÃ¢â¬ ¦2005) Ã According to the National institute of Mental health, successful suicides among adolescents number about 8 in 100,000. (Teen SuicideÃ¢â¬ ¦2005)Ã Ã Attempts at suicide are estimated to be much higher. (Teen SuicideÃ¢â¬ ¦2005) The National Youth Violence Prevention Resource center found that about one in five teens think about suicide, one in six have actually planned for it, and one in twelve had attempted suicide in the past year(Teen SuicideÃ¢â¬ ¦2005)Ã . As is the case with adults, most (about 90%) of adolescent suicide victims have an underlying mental disorder. (Teen SuicideÃ¢â¬ ¦2005) One moder theory of suicide in adolescence is espoused by Dr. David Elkind. He posits that there is a gap between physical and psychological development, which causes stress in the adolescent. (Elkind, 1998) Dr. Elkind theorizes that teenagers, who are often treated as adults at home and in schools, are not as complete in their psychological development as they are in their physical development. (Elkind, 1998) This results, opines Dr. Elkind in a stressful dissonance that can lead to suicidal ideation. (Elkind, 1998) Ã Additionally, exposing an adolescent to adult-type stressors, such as deadlines, appointments and specific goal-driven activities can cause stress. (Elkind, 1998) Ã This stress can lead to depression and suicide. (Elkind, 1998) On the other side of the coin, Dr. Elkind believes that over scheduling a young child may leave him or her bored when the structure surrounding the child disappears in their teen years. (Elkind, 1998) This subsequent lack of direction can also lead to depression. (Elkind, 1998) This theory suggests a preventative viewpoint on teen suicide. (Elkind, 1998) Ã Once an adolescent articulates a desire for suicide, or makes the attempt, Dr. Elkind recommends the standard psychological treatment, and medication, if warranted. (Elkind, 1998) A more environmental viewpoint is espoused by Dr. Bronfenbrenner. (Paquette Ryan, n.d.) Ã He views human development as an interaction between individuals and a system of bioecological systems. (Paquette Ryan, n.d.) He views any psychopathology, including teen depression or suicide as a dysfunction whose development is engendered by deficiencies in the mesosystem (immediate social surroundings) of the individual. (Paquette Ryan, n.d.) This approach to development does not lend itself particularly well to the treatment phase of suicide in adolescents, rather, it offers a socially-constructed theory for the phenomenon. (Paquette Ryan, n.d.) Preventative Ã¢â¬Å"treatmentÃ¢â¬ in this paradigm would consist of fostering a healthy, positive mesosystem around the individual, so that they might develop in a psychologically healthy manner. Again, one is forced to conclude that an already-depressed or suicidal teen would be best served by therapy and possible pharmaceutical remedies. (Paquette Ryan, n.d.) A more cognitive approach to adolescent behavior is espoused by Dr. Robert Selman. (SelmanÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ ¦2002) His theories, which are derived from those of Piaget, rely on modeling and other cognitive methods to explain behavior. (SelmanÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ ¦2002) As such, he would explain the phenomenon of adolescent suicide as a response to a social context where such behavior is observed to have a positive outcome. (SelmanÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ ¦2002) Rarely would the cues be direct, but cultural stimuli such as music, television, and movies could inadvertently (or blatantly) glamorize the practice of suicide, and compel an adolescent, especially one who already suffers from depression or some other psychological ailment to attempt suicide. (SelmanÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ ¦2002) Ã Of these theories, the one whose suggested treatment appears to be most effective is SelmanÃ¢â¬â¢s. Cognitive therapy has been found to decrease repeated suicide attempts by 50%. (Asher, 2005) While this particular study focused on adults, there is little reason to think that the results would be demonstrably different with adolescents. (Asher, 2005) Interestingly, the same cannot be said of pharmaceutical treatment options. (DeNoon, 2002) It has been shown that teens who take antidepressants actually have an increased rate of suicide than those who do not. (DeNoon, 2002) Recent evidence suggests, however, that the same studies prove that the conclusion drawn from the data was erroneous, as the scientists failed to control for other variables such as severity of the depression, and other factors. (DeNoon, 2002) Ã Despite these conflicting findings, or perhaps because of them, a therapist should be cautious about Ã¢â¬Å"throwing drugs at the problemÃ¢â¬ and dismissing a patient with a prescription. (DeNoon, 2002) Ã In addition to the pitfalls of possible adverse effects of the drugs themselves, this kind of treatment is far more vulnerable to negative outcomes hinged on misdiagnosis. (DeNoon, 2002) Ã If a closely monitored patient is found to have another type of disorder, to which depression is merely a secondary characteristic, that therapist can make the appropriate pharmacological and therapeutic revisions. (DeNoon, 2002) Ã If, on the other hand, an underlying condition is missed, and the patient dismissed with antidepressants, the results could be tragic. (DeNoon, 2002) Owing to the nature of serotonin-stimulating drugs, which most antidepressants are, an effect of a non-depressed person taking this medication is the onset of severe depression. (DeNoon, 2002) Ã This would result in the therapist causing the very symptoms he or she is attempting to relieve. (DeNoon, 2002) The main commonality of all of these perspectives is the need to monitor closely the disposition of the patient. The only way to differentiate true depression from a phasic anomaly of normal adolescent development is to observe the behavior and responses over a long period of time. For example, behavior that might be characterized as bipolar, buts of high energy and enthusiasm contrasted with lethargy and depression may be the normal reaction to hormone development in an adolescent. Without context, it is almost impossible to tell the difference Thus, the best preventative measure would be to treat any suicidal ideation as a serious symptom and have a therapist interact for a long period with the adolescent. References Asher, J. (2005). Ã¢â¬Å"Cognitive Therapy Reduces Repeat Suicide Attempts by 50 Percent.Ã¢â¬ Retrieved October 28th, 2008 from The National Institutes of Health (NIH) website: http://www.nih.gov/news/pr/aug2005/nimh-02a.htm Ã DeNoon, D. (2002) Ã¢â¬Å"Teen Suicide, Antidepressant Link Questioned.Ã¢â¬ Retrieved October 28th, 2008 from WebMD website: http://www.webmd.com/depression/news/20041215/teen-suicide-antidepressant-link-questioned Elkind, D. (1998) All Grown Up and No Place To Go. Peresus Publishing, Cambridge, MA. Pp. 1-290. Paquette, D. Ryan, J. (n.d.) Ã¢â¬Å"BronfenbrennerÃ¢â¬â¢s Ecological Systems Theory.Ã¢â¬ Retrieved October 28th, 2008 from National-Louis University website: http://pt3.nl.edu/paquetteryanwebquest.pdf Ã¢â¬Å"SelmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Five Stages of Perspective Taking,Ã¢â¬ (2002) Retrieved October 28th, 2008 from Everything-2 website: http://www.everything2.com/index.pl?node_id=1275038 Ã¢â¬Å"Symptoms of DepressionÃ¢â¬ . (2007) retrieved October 28th, 2008 from Psychology 24Ãâ"7 website: http://www.psychiatry24x7.com/bgdisplay.jhtml?itemname=depression_symptoms Ã¢â¬Å"Teen Suicide Statistics.Ã¢â¬ (2005) retrieved October 28th, 2008 from Teen Depression website: http://www.teendepression.org/articles1.html How to cite Suicide and Adolescent Psychology, Papers
Question: Discuss about the Effective Business Communication Competence and Contexts. Answer: Introduction: The aim of the study is to carry out a self reflection study on the understanding of personal capability. In order to understand this particular perspective, a number of reflective analysis tools will be taken into consideration. On the basis of the findings, the major areas will be addressed where improvements shall be required. The paper will also discuss certain approaches that should be taken into consideration for the sake of improving the drawbacks faced in the communication process. Diagnosis and reflection For self evaluation, a number of diagnostic tools have been used for the sake of evaluating about self. These Diagnostic tools are: Johari Window, Communications Style Questionnaire, Assertiveness Questionnaires, Quinn Management Questionnaire, the ESCI (Emotional Intelligence). The Johari Window helped to understand the relationship with own self and with others. With the analysis, I have been able to know that I live in the open arena and I am quite aware of the other people or peers who are associated with me. With the Communications Style Questionnaire, I have understood that I stay comfortable with others I do not get angry on others and always try to agree with others and value their opinion. I am a good listener and I respect everyones opinion. In addition to this, I feel guilty at times if I find myself ripped in some kind of issues. However, I have also observed that I find it difficult to maintain eye contact with others. The Self assessment assertiveness questionnaire has helped me to analyze my behavior with others. From the analysis, I have understood that I am much determined towards my work and I take decision on understanding the situation very thoroughly. In this respect, I would like to mention that I always consider the opinion of others. I personally believe that any person can come up with better approaches and ideas and in a competitive market condition, innovative ideas often come up with better results. Therefore, I personally feel that it is much competent to understand the perspectives of others and then jotting down to a particular conclusion. The Quinn Management Questionnaire test has helped me to understand my competences and how well I can apply certain things in my practical life to improve my capability of communicating with others. This particular test has helped me to understand my leadership and managerial value as well. From the test, it has been understood that I believe in setting rules and regulations before coming up to certain conclusion. This clearly states that I value others perspective and always try to focus on achieving a collective result by undertaking others point of view as well. Professional experience: If a situation related to professional confrontation is considered, I would like to share a small incident. Once I went for an interview for an internship purpose, I had faced certain issues related to communication with the seniors with whom I had a discussion. The person with whom I had the conversation was from another origin. It is for the same reason the interaction with them was not very comfortable because I had some issues in understanding the accent of the person on the other side. Another incident I would like to share is when I went to attend a seminar once. The topic of discussion of the seminar was very interesting and it was the reason, I went to join the seminar. However, I faced certain difficulties at the time of communicating. I paid great attention on the seminar but somehow failed to get response from the other end. There remained certain lagging in terms of gaining feedbacks. These incidents have made it clearer that I had certain communication issues related to language barrier and gaining feedback. Lastly, the ESCI (Emotional Intelligence) has helped me to create a self awareness and self management. I have understood the importance of self awareness as well as social awareness in order to work in a competitive work environment. With the test, it has been evaluated that I can work as a team because very less conflict occurs with me when I work as a team member. In this respect, I would like to say that I have an ability to manage and guide people as well. Two communication issues identified are: From the analysis done using the various diagnostic tools and personal interactions with others, I have been able to identify two major areas where I need improvement in order to improve my communication with others. Language barriers: I have understood that I lack certain qualities when it comes to understand others language. In fact, I have noticed that at times it becomes difficult for me to understand English language as well because of the difference in the accent and the way of delivering speech. I think, this particular issue will create problem for me in future because the recent market situation is global, almost every company has been expanding and moving out to become global. Therefore, there remained a great chance of the fact that there will be requirement of understanding language and accents of others. Lack of gaining feedbacks: Another important thing that has been understood is that in order to gain better result in the communication process, it is important to gain feedbacks. However, every time it might not become possible to gain feedbacks but without proper feedbacks, the communication process is not completely fulfilled. Therefore, I think I should improve my skills in order to gain better feedbacks. Concept of interpersonal communication: As stated by Harzing and Pudelko, (2014), interpersonal communication is the means by which people exchange their feelings or information by both verbally and non-verbally. The concept of interpersonal communication is related to self disclosure and other approaches that are used by people to reach one another. The key concepts of the interpersonal theories are to explain the behavior of people and the relationship between the success and the failure of the communication process. Owing to this particular concept, Brannen, Piekkari and Tietze, (2014) have revealed a number of concepts that are directly related to the interaction of people. Strategies: There are a number of active, passive and interactive strategies that people use or learn to approach other people. In the view point of OSullivan and Carr, (2017), passive strategy is to observe people from a distance before approaching the person. On the other hand, asking information about the person from others is known as active strategy. The interactive strategy is to directly reach to the person and to initiate the conversation. Self disclosure: Danziger, (2013) stated that self disclosure fosters trust and ultimately brings people together. Interpersonal communication gains momentum when one discloses information to the other person. Same commented that when information is passed on to other, it helps to reveal information that might include certain sensitive and private information as well (Berwick Chomsky, 2015). If the person feels comfortable then there remains chance of increased intimacy between two persons. Stages: Stages explain the way how relationship develop or evolve from time to time between two persons. As evident that after an initial encounter, the relationship progresses to an experimental stage where the information is exchanged between two persons. As commented by Lane, (2016) that if the initial stages are successful, there remains a chance of long lasting relationship. The Relational Dialectics Theory: Any kind of tension in the relationship that results in either connection or separateness in the interpersonal relationship falls under the relational dialectic theory. As argued by Dragojevic and Giles, (2014), that theorists believe that self disclosure can fight with the need for the privacy and that the conflicts between two persons. Same revealed that there always remain desires for secrecy for the sake of keeping things private. The concept of language barrier: As stated by Arnold and Boggs, (2015), language is an essential element for any kind of communication. Even people with speech impairments can communicate with each other using various signs and symbols. However, difficulties occur when there arise situations where two persons find it difficult to communicate with each other because of any kind of language barrier to communication. In the view point of Wood, (2015), language barrier is the most common cause of the creation of misunderstanding and misinterpretation among people. Using or not using such words that are not easily understandable by others creates language barriers. Moreover, it makes the communication ineffective and prevents the message from being conveyed to other person. One of the major reasons behind language or communication barrier occurs when two people speak two different languages. In case if the language is understandable to others, their dialects and accents might not match. This will ultimately create a gap between the communication process and act as a barrier. In this respect, Hybels, (2014) commented that sometimes people have to confront certain jargons and other technical words as well that remain non-understandable and the barriers are not diluted. Hybels, (2014) also revealed that language barrier is becoming progressively more challenging because of the heterogeneity of different ethnic origins and various primary languages. Moreover, individuals who lack the understanding of the English language hinder the communication to a large extent. The feedback communication: As stated by Amati and Hannawa, (2014), receivers of messages are not merely the passive absorbers of messages, but they are more likely to receive the message and respond them. This particular response from the receivers end is called the feedback. The effectiveness of a communication process largely depends on the feedbacks received by the person. Amati and Hannawa, (2014) commented that if the audience is not able to get a proper response of the message delivered then the complete communication process might not be as fruitful as expected. Therefore, there should always remain the chance of providing or receiving a feedback from the end of both the parties. In order to maintain an open climate for communication, feedbacks are important (Pennycook, 2014). Importance of getting feedback: As stated by Rudick and Golsan, (2014), as much as work is important, it is important to provide and get feedback as well. An effective and constructive feedback helps to focus on the process of communication and therefore, result in effective communication. In order to develop interpersonal skills and improve the skills of communication, it is important get feedback from the person with whom the communication takes place. In this respect, West and Turner, (2013) have come up with certain suggestions that would help to develop certain skills and personalities that help to gain better feedbacks from others. These are: Feedback should be based on behavior and not personality: Comments should be made only on the behavior of the person and not on the personality of the person. There should not be any kind of discussion based on the personality or intelligence of the people. Feedback should describe the impact of the behavior: Baxter and Norwood, (2015) stated that one cannot say how it feels or affect others, but it is the person himself who can state how it feels or put impact on a person. Therefore, the intention of the person should have control over the emotion and the intension of the other person. Feedback should be specific and timely: It has to be understood that it is not something feasible to please or offend someone by giving feedback after a long time. It might happen that the complete scenario has been wash away from the mind of the recipient (Piekkari, Welch Welch, 2014). Therefore, it is likely to say things at the very moment when the communication takes place. In addition to this, the feedback should be as specific as possible that will help both the sender and the recipient to understand the issue. Conclusion: The paper highlighted the importance of inter personal communication and its importance in both professional and personal life. It has to be understood that communication is the most important part of life and any kind of life activity cannot be done without proper communication. If there remain any issues, it falls under the responsibility of the person to overcome those issues. With the detailed analysis undertaken to understand the stand point and to evaluate the problems and the issues faced during the communication process, it has to be said that improvements have to be made to improve the interpersonal communication by the means of removing language barrier and by the means of developing personality that feedbacks can be gained easily. For the same purpose, an action plan can be made here. To remove language barrier: Factors Analysis S- Specific It is very important to remove the language barrier to increase communication with others. In order to do so, I shall enroll in some courses where I will learn how to communicate with others and how to approach people who do not share a common language. M- Measurable The improvement can be easily measured if I feel comfortable among others who belong to different culture or share different language. A- Achievable The objective is easily available if good effort is made on the learning process and focus is made on gaining better knowledge about others. R- Relevant The objective is relevant because by the means of enrolling in a course or activity, I shall be able to improve my capability and understanding on the particular issue. T- Timely In order to achieve this particular objective, a time span of 6 months will be required. To find out better ways for gaining feedbacks Factors Analysis S- Specific As it has been widely evident that in order to come up with a better communication result, it is important to gain feedbacks from others. It has been found that one has to improve their skills to get proper feedback. Therefore, I shall consider devoting my time on improving the skills. The skills can be improved if I start reading about the various means of improving my capability of understanding others. M- Measurable The objective can be measured easily when I shall understand that I am gaining proper feedbacks from others. A- Achievable The target can be easily achieved if proper attention is made on the learning process because it is a behavioral approach that can be molded by the means of regular practices. R- Relevant The objective is very relevant because the communication process cannot be completed without gaining a proper response. Therefore, working on this particular issue is important. T- Timely I think it will take about 8-10 months to achieve this particular target. The theories and the applications that have been used for the sake of understanding the importance of inter personal communication has helped to understand the issues and how effectively these issues can be overcome. By the end of the discussion, it can be said that if the action plans are followed in a proper way, there still remain the options that issues can be overcome easily. References: Amati, R., Hannawa, A. F. (2014). Relational dialectics theory: Disentangling physician-perceived tensions of end-of-life communication.Health communication,29(10), 962-973. Arnold, E. C., Boggs, K. U. (2015).Interpersonal relationships: Professional communication skills for nurses. Elsevier Health Sciences. Baxter, L. A., Norwood, K. M. (2015).Relational dialectics theory. John Wiley Sons, Inc.. Berwick, R. C., Chomsky, N. (2015).Why only us: Language and evolution. MIT press. Brannen, M. Y., Piekkari, R., Tietze, S. (2014). The multifaceted role of language in international business: Unpacking the forms, functions and features of a critical challenge to MNC theory and performance.Journal of International Business Studies,45(5), 495-507. Danziger, K. (2013).Interpersonal Communication: Pergamon General Psychology Series(Vol. 53). Elsevier. Dragojevic, M., Giles, H. (2014). Language and interpersonal communication: Their intergroup dynamics.Handbook of interpersonal communication, 29-51. Harzing, A. W., Pudelko, M. (2014). Hablas vielleicht un peu la mia language? A comprehensive overview of the role of language differences in headquarterssubsidiary communication.The International Journal of Human Resource Management,25(5), 696-717. Hybels, S. (2014).Communicating effectively. McGraw-Hill Higher Education. Lane, S. D. (2016).Interpersonal communication: Competence and contexts. Routledge. OSullivan, P. B., Carr, C. T. (2017). Masspersonal communication: A model bridging the mass-interpersonal divide.New Media Society, 1461444816686104. Pennycook, A. (2014).The cultural politics of English as an international language. Routledge. Piekkari, R., Welch, D., Welch, L. S. (2014).Language in international business: The multilingual reality of global business expansion. Edward Elgar Publishing. Rudick, C. K., Golsan, K. B. (2014). Revisiting the relational communication perspective: Drawing upon relational dialectics theory to map an expanded research agenda for communication and instruction scholarship.Western Journal of Communication,78(3), 255-273. West, R., Turner, L. H. (2013). Introducing Communication Theory: Analysis and Application (2013 Ed.). Wood, J. T. (2015).Interpersonal communication: Everyday encounters. Nelson Education.
Friday, May 1, 2020
Question: Define what is a leadership and its styles? Answer: Introduction Leadership is the technique through which a solitary individual, for this circumstance the pioneer, influences a person towards the appreciation of a normal goal. The power of Leadership relies on upon the diagram of Leadership that the trailblazer expects, and typically relies on upon the perspective of Leadership. This implies various Leadership layouts are powerful in unique circumstances (Tittemore, 2003). Appropriately, compelling organization is depended upon to know the perspective through which a particular system of Leadership will be gainful. Likewise, the Leadership procedures can be used for deciphering the individual Leadership plot that an individual is inclined to put into practice (Kippenberger, 2002). This chronicle examines two Leadership traces and sees the most supportive Leadership that meets the viewpoint of remedial Leadership. Moreover, the document researches and contrasts Leadership and organization. Leadership is the ability to offer courses to recommend future earnings and adjusts the supporters to targets accomplishment (Kelly-Hiedenthal, 2009). Moreover, "Activity" is considered as a powerful fortifying framework that joins distinctive estimations, for instance, masterminding, orchestrating, overseeing and managing. The exercises of a sorted out gathering can be affected by a system in which the exercises to get the targets and assignments are dealt with by Leadership (L. Roussel, 2006). Leadership is similarly depicted as bringing on people or a gathering to make a move depending upon the destination of the pioneer. Likewise, (L. Roussel, 2006), truly laid out that Leadership can be depicted as different people who have been pushed by a solitary individual to perform together to completing typical targets and endeavours using fitting means. A gathering of spectators can be modified into a performing and accommodating association and this is a fundamental bit of Leadership. L eadership can be official or accommodating. As (Sullivan, 2012) depict, it can be official when a wellbeing capable administrator shows power and power inside a structure of legal affirmation by the association. Leadership can be agreeable when utilized by a delegate who does not have the capability Leadership aptitudes, contemplation and positions to promote the capability of the perform results. Leadership Styles Autocratic Leadership This framework is whereby the trailblazer has much essential and makes usage of the cooperativeness charmed with him or her to start Leadership works out, for instance, decision making. Oppressive Leadership setup plot on the quality based thinking, which sets more focus on the estimation of the affiliation that wins between the pioneer and the supporters (Edwin A. Fleishmam, 1973). The supporters are obliged to stick to the purchases from their organization. Furthermore, this Leadership diagram does not have a participation system to Leadership in light of the way that the delegates are not discussed under any situation. This is associated with using a sorted out a blueprint of the benefits and remedial measures for not ready to hold quickly to the requests from the pioneer. Tyrannical Leadership is commonly gainful in circumstances whereby bearing is obliged to perform components, and where the supporters can errand their pioneer's essentialness. Also, it can be compelling in circu mstances where the decision putting aside a couple of minutes is bound. Nevertheless, this Leadership arrangement is not capable in circumstances whereby the supporters are exacerbated and have low spirits (Bessie L. Marquis, 2011). Democratic Leadership This arrangement is moreover, generally known as participative Leadership plan, which is according to the weighty thought, whereby the key considered Leadership concentrates on conform and a refined Leadership with the objective of improving both individual and business capability. Larger part runs Leadership typically obliges a participative strategy to Leadership whereby the supporters are similarly given an opportunity to make their Leadership limits through the use scattered Leadership and participative settling on choices (Sergiovanni, 2006). The labourers are moreover possessed with the exploring technique, and in the strategy, they become feasible organization they could call their own. Simply Leadership is compelling in circumstances whereby there is a prerequisite for fan motivation and the necessity for each to make one's Leadership capacities. In the perspective of the viewpoint of helpful Leadership, a law based framework to Leadership is additionally convincing in examin ation to tyrannical Leadership. This is the way that the helpful atmosphere is a convincing one and such limits can be run successfully according to the choices that are made by one pioneer. Also, the quality therapeutic work does not oblige a tyrant procedure since it will be liable to joined responses, which will amazingly keep the power of helpful limits (Miner, 2005). Authoritarian Leadership Control is the crucial system associated with these leaders. Therefore of Leadership spotlights on partition in the work environment, tends to be impenetrable to human issues, is inhumane to contention and sex, and shows little assessments or energy to workers (Michael Z. Hackman, 2008). They have confidence in a top-down, line and labourers, business outline with clear levels of power and insisting frameworks. It is found that authoritarian control can be considered as fruitful in certain system circumstances, considering the immense conditions of concern and viciousness, in light of the circumstance (Creighton, 2004). Transformational Leadership This style is the most suitable thought to clear up my pioneer's part, nature and accomplishment. This Leadership concentrates on how the supporters can be spared, admonished and prepared to get the destinations of the task by the control. (Sullivan, 2012), highlight that making specialists' commitment to the perspective is the destination of this Leadership. According to (Kelly-Hiedenthal, 2009), this Leadership is according to the prospect of fortifying others to join in searching for a joined reason by collaborating to complete a perspective of a recommended cutting-edge. The task of (L. Roussel, 2006), exhibits that there are four parts of convincing and powerful this Leadership: control of have trust in, speculation, self and centrality. In control of place stock in and quality, choices depending upon quality, endurance and regard that have been made by these control will be exceptional, taken over and realized. A pioneer's choice is by and large reliable and sound. Having persp ective, goals or an inclination of results will provoke achieving the control of speculation. Any helpful thought association will be delineated by how it gives the gathering and where it is advancing to experience its perspective attested. Vision infers the trustworthy, appealing and guaranteed exceptional communicated for the association. Knowing the limits of the agents and how to use them sufficiently is translating the massiveness of self. Pioneers add to their Leadership limits through undertaking with their preparation in Leadership and control strategies so that the burnout and nervousness experiencing they will be diminished and administered. In control of significance, control must rouse commitment in specialists by uniting their perspective and making a standard lifestyle among the agents by using social occasion dialogs, gatherings, contracts and assertion developing in which particular progress and imaginative are modestly sustained. The targets and goals that are stron g with the perspective must be joined with the benefits and assessments for the specialists. Additionally, (Roussel, 2011) has explained that in this Leadership, the accomplishment of destinations that favourable circumstances the association and the specialists themselves is obtained by strengthening the agents to have a perspective about the association and to place stock in the control. Analysis There are wide variations between "management" and Leadership. By meaning, Leadership can be described as the procedure through which an innovator impacts a number of individuals towards the accomplishment of a common objective. "Management" on the other hand can be considered as a decision-making procedure that depends on the business policies; it requires the company and synchronization of business actions according to the business guidelines and with the aim of accomplishing a particular objective. The real distinction between Leadership and "management" is that Leadership requires the ingredients of a new route and perspective for the business associates, while "management" requires guiding and managing of business sources based on already recognized business guidelines and principles. Management has the liability of developing business objective, while leaders have the liability of applying the recognized tasks (Hoyle, 2002). Conclusion Leadership is a very important amongst the most discriminating limits in managers. It is a strategy of relationship between the pioneer and the delegates, influencing them decidedly to accomplishing the objectives and undertakings of the association (Yukl, 2012). This Leadership is extraordinarily convincing and is comprehensively used as a piece of therapeutic core interests. It is in light of the musings of strengthening, impelling and engaging the specialists to coordinating to get the affiliation's targets and perspective. A pioneer who acts as a partial plan can influence the labourers and make them in control they could call their own practice, work accomplishment and delegates advancement (Mcgregor, 2006). Staff advancement, dedication and work fulfilment can be overhauled by using these Leadership limits. These are enthusiastic, impulse, power, gathering a relying upon relationship between the pioneer and the specialists, discussing power and decision making and fulfilling delegates for quality predominance work accomplishment. Reference  Bessie L. Marquis, C. J. (2011). Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Nursing: Theory and Application. USA: LWW. Creighton, T. B. (2004). Leading from below the surface. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Edwin A. Fleishmam, J. G. (1973). Current developments in the study of Leadership. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. Hoyle, J. R. (2002). Leadership and the force of love. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Kelly-Hiedenthal, P. (2009). Essentials of Nursing Leadership Management. Aron Journal , 89 (5), 859-860. Kippenberger, T. (2002). Leadership Styles. New York: Lippincott Williams Wilkins. L. Roussel, R. C. (2006). Management and Leadership for nurses administrators. USA: Jones and Bartlett. Mcgregor, D. (2006). The human side of enterprise. New York: McGraw-Hill. Michael Z. Hackman, C. E. (2008). Leadership: A Communication Perspective. USA: Waveland Pr Inc. Miner, J. B. (2005). Organizational Behavior I: Essential Theories of Motivation and Leadership. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe. Roussel, L. A. (2011). Management And Leadership For Nurse Administrators. USA: Jones and Bartlett. Sergiovanni, T. J. (2006). Rethinking Leadership. USA: Corwin. Sullivan, E. J. (2012). Effective Leadership Management Nursing. New Jersey, USA.: Pearson Education. Tittemore, J. A. (2003). Leadership at all Levels. Ontario, Canada: Boskwa Publishing. Yukl, G. A. (2012). Leadership in Organizations. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.